Saturday, January 26, 2013

Top 10 Parenting Books on Autism




Many authors of parenting books on autism often comment that they wrote their book because of difficulty in finding a practical, informative book on the topic of raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).  However, over the past few years many autism parenting books have been published and parents of a newly diagnosed child with autism can find some very good offerings. The Special Needs Book Review has listed their TOP TEN Books for parents raising a child with autism. Please note that Special Needs Book Review is not paid for reviewing books. The reviews and TOP TEN Books on autism are entirely their opinions. The ten books are in random order. Readers can follow the link in each paragraph to the complete review of each book. Many of the authors have participated in the Special Needs Book Review Author Interview Series and you will find a link to the interviews with the review of their book. 
TOP TEN Parenting Books on Autism 
1. Different . . . Not Less: Inspiring Stories of Achievement and Successful Employment from Adults with Autism, Asperger’s, and ADHD -by Temple Grandin, PhD. ~  Dr Temple Grandin found the perfect words, Different…Not Less, to describe herself and the fourteen contributors of her new book who all have autism or Asperger’s. In the foreword, Dr Tony Attwood writes, “This is an inspiring book.” Each contributor has a chapter and their story is told in their own words. Dr. Grandin chose individuals from a wide variety of skill sets, from different countries, ranging in age from their 30’s to 60’s but the topics addressed are similar: early years, school years, parental support, bullying, college, family relationships, employment, diagnosis, mentors, etc.  Review
2. 1001 Great Ideas for Teaching & Raising Children with Autism or Asperger’s: Expanded 2nd Edition -by Ellen Notbohm and Veronica Zysk  ~  Looking for advice, support and encouragement in your overwhelming journey raising a child with autism or Asperger’s? This is the book you need. Teachers, friends, and family of autistic children read this empowering book crammed with information, solutions, and explanations to make the lives of these children better.  Review 
3. What I Wish I’d Known About Raising a Child with Autism: A Mom and a Psychologist Offer Heartfelt Guidance for the First Five Years  ~  Bravo to authors Bobbi Sheahan and Kathy DeOrnellas, Ph.D. in achieving what they set out to do. Write a book to assure those who love and care for an individual on the autism spectrum that life goes on; it doesn’t have to be all depressing, hard work.  If you are an educator, or know a family with an autistic child, this book is also for you because you will understand the challenges these families face. Reading their book will bring understanding and compassion to others… hopefully those standing in line with you at the checkout counters. Review
4. Look at my Eyes: Autism Spectrum Disorders: Autism and PDD-NOS  -by Melanie and Seth Fowler~  I love this gem of a book from cover to cover! I recommend it to the general public so they can know what it is like to raise a child with autism, in this case a boy diagnosed with PDD-NOS (pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified). I recommend this book to new parents who are questioning if their toddler is on track with his developmental milestones. Most of all Look at my Eyes in a must-read if you have a child newly diagnosed as being on the autism spectrum. Review 
5. Thinking Person’s Guide to Autism: What you really need to know about autism from autistics, parents, and professionals  ~ Edited by Shannon Des Roches Rosa, Jennifer Byde Myers, Liz Ditz, Emily Willingham and Carol Greenburg.  This awesome book has fifty-five essays written by contributors from the autism community in all walks of life. The autism spectrum disorder community, especially parents of newly diagnosed children, needs this book. It is filled with positive, evidence-based autism information and advice.  There are nine broad themes/chapters and the essays are grouped together accordingly. To quickly retrieve an essay on a particular topic, Thinking Person’s Guide to Autism has a comprehensive index… something so many books lack. Review   
6. Crazy Love: A Traumedy about Life with Autism  -by  Sharie Walter ~ This book  tickles your funny bone from cover to cover. In her memoir, Sharie keeps you entertained with her amusing stories of life with autism raising her 5 year old daughter. Ms. Walter is surely a talented wordsmith that keeps you chuckling with her brilliantly written snippets of life with autism. Laugh a lot and learn a lot from Sharie Walter’s beautifully written book. Review
7. The Way I See It: A Personal Look at Autism and Asperger’s -by Temple Grandin, Ph.D.  ~What an amazing accomplishment on the part of her parents, the professionals, caregivers and friends who helped her and on Temple herself to have overcome or learned to cope with many of her challenges caused by autism. Readers will rejoice and be filled with hope for their own loved ones with autism or Asperger’s as they read Temple’s story on how she was motivated to forge ahead and adapt. Review
8. The Child with Autism at Home & in the Community: Over 600 Must-Have Tips  -by Kathy Labosh and LaNita Miller  ~  600 bullet points providing practical tips and tried-out strategies for families and educators to use to meet the needs of autistic children. You will find TIPS to make your home life happier and easier on picky eating, shampoos, and locking doors to prevent elopements, etc. Then you find the hundreds of suggestions on how to go out and enjoy your community. Learn what to do to enjoy the community playground, restaurant, mall, grocery store, movie theater, church, library, and sporting events, etc. Review
9. Challenging the Myths of Autism: Unlock New Possibilities and Hope -by Jonathan Alderson, Ed.M ~  In this book, Jonathan examines seven stereotypical characterizations or “myths of autism”. He has a chapter on each of these perennially inaccurate descriptions. Each chapter explains the origins of  the seven myths and discusses the evidence refuting them. The author invites the reader to put aside their preconceived notions of autism which can mislead parents, therapists, and the general public to underestimate the potential of children with autism. Alderson’s book is crammed with heartwarming stories and useful information. Review
10. Developing Leisure Time Skills for Persons with Autism: Structured Playtime Activities with Valuable Support Strategies for Adults -by Phyllis Coyne, Colleen Nyberg, and Mary Lou Vandenburg  ~ This book is a detailed guide with comprehensive, structured strategies to help adults introduce meaningful, leisure activities to children with ASD.  The method used is to narrow down the personal preferences and strengths of these individuals and use this knowledge to assist them to be more independent and self-directing in participating in more enjoyable and meaningful leisure activities. Review
Lee A. Wilkinson, PhD, CCBT, NCSP is author of the award-winning book, A Best Practice Guide to Assessment and Intervention for Autism and Asperger Syndrome in Schools, published by Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Sunday, January 13, 2013

Test Review: Social Responsiveness Scale, Second Edition (SRS-2)



The second edition of the widely administered Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-2; Constantino & Gruber, 2012) maintains continuity with the original instrument as an efficient quantitative measure of the various dimensions of interpersonal behavior, communication, and repetitive/stereotypic behavior characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The SRS-2 extends the age range from 2.5 years through adulthood. There are now four forms, each consisting of 65 items and for a specific age group: Preschool Form (ages 2.5 to 4.5 years); School-Age Form (4 to 18 years); Adult Form (ages 19 and up); and Adult Self-Report Form (ages 19 and up). Nationally representative standardization samples were collected to support each form. These samples consist of a total of 4,709 ratings of 1,963 individuals: 474 ratings of 247 preschool children, 2,025 ratings of 1,014 school-age children, and 2,210 ratings of 702 adults.
Content
The individual items of the SRS-2 show strong parallels across forms. While most of the 65 items are the same, some were changed and reference activities and social behavior that are specific and appropriate to the ages covered by their respective form. Only the School-Age form is unchanged in its item content from the first edition of the SRS. Each item is scored on a 4 point scale Likert-scale: 1 (“not true”); 2 (“sometimes true); 3 (often true); and 4 (“almost always true”). Scores are obtained for five Treatment Subscales: Social Awareness; Social Cognition; Social Communication; Social Motivation; and Restricted Interests and Repetitive Behavior. There are also two DSM-5 Compatible Subscales (Social Communication and Interaction and Restricted Interests and Repetitive Behavior) that allow comparison of symptoms to the new DSM-5 ASD diagnostic criteria.  
 Interpretation
Interpretation is based on a single score (Total Score) reflecting the sum of responses to all 65 SRS questions which serves as an index of severity of social skills across the autism spectrum. The SRS-2 Total score is expressed in raw and T-scores. Raw scores are converted to T-scores for gender and respondent. T-score guidelines provide interpretive language applicable to the specific age rages covered by the various forms (preschool, school-age, and adult). A total T-score of 76 or higher is considered severe and strongly associated with clinical diagnosis of Autistic Disorder. T-scores of 66 through 75 are interpreted as indicating Moderate deficiencies in reciprocal social behavior that are clinically significant and lead to substantial interference in everyday social interactions, whereas T-scores of 60 to 65 are in the Mild range and indicate mild to moderate deficits in social interaction. T scores of 59 and below are considered to be within typical limits and generally not associated with clinically significant ASD. A Profile Sheet for each form provides T-score results and a brief summary statement to facilitate interpretation and discussion of results. Raters can complete the 65 items in approximately 15 to 20 minutes. Scoring and graphing can be completed in approximately 5 to 10 minutes. The manual provides a series of case examples to illustrate application of the SRS-2 at different points across the lifespan (preschool, school-age, and adult). Although the SRS-2 is relatively easy to administer and score, interpretation and application of the results require professional training and experience in child development, psychology, or education.
Psychometric Characteristics
More than 40 research studies and independent resources support the diagnostic validity of SRS-2 and the instrument’s application in a wide variety of clinical and educational contexts. Based on research analyses, a total raw score cutpoint value of 70 is associated with a sensitivity value of .78 and specificity value of .94 for any ASD (autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, or PDD-NOS) in unselected general-population groups. In terms of positive predictive value (PPV), 93% of children whose scores fall above this cutpoint will, upon completion of a comprehensive assessment, receive a diagnosis of ASD. In most clinical and school settings, raw scores at or above 85 from two separate informants provide very strong evidence of ASD. In a large clinical sample (School-Age Form), ROC (receiver operating characteristics) analyses indicate an area under the curve (AUC) of .968 and a sensitivity and specificity value of .92 at a raw score of 62. This suggests that the SRS-2 is a robust instrument for discriminating between individuals with ASD and those unaffected by the condition. Large samples also provide evidence of good interrater reliability, high internal consistency, and convergent validity with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ).
 Conclusion
A significant strength of the SRS-2 is its facility in quantitatively measuring autistic traits and symptoms across the complete range of severity (mild to severe). This is especially important when identifying the more subtle characteristics of autism and more capable and less severely affected individuals with ASD (without intellectual disability). The SRS-2 forms should also be useful for quantifying response to intervention/treatment over time. Extending the age range of the SRS-2 adds to its versatility as a screening and diagnostic measure of symptoms associated with ASD. The Preschool and Adult Forms afford multiple perspectives throughout the life span and provide important tools for both clinicians and researchers to assess these populations. The subscales corresponding to the two symptom domains: Social Communication (SCI) and Restricted Interests and Repetitive Behavior (RRB) will also align the SRS-2 with the recently approved DSM-5 criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder and Social Communication Disorder. Because a majority of independent research has been limited to the School-Age form, studies are needed to provide further information relative to the diagnostic validity of the Preschool and Adult Forms. Likewise, research is needed to examine the relationship between social impairment and intellectual disability and the more severe forms of ADHD. In sum, the SRS-2 can be used confidently in school and clinical contexts as an efficient measure of ASD symptomatology and severity. However, the results of questionnaire measures should not replace clinical assessment and must be integrated with information from different sources. The SRS-2 should be used within the context of a comprehensive evaluation, including developmental history and assessment of intellectual, language, and adaptive behavior functioning.
Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. P. (2012). Social Responsiveness Scale, Second Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
Wilkinson, L. A. (2016). A Best Practice Guide to Assessment and Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Schools (2nd Ed.). London, UK: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. 

Thursday, January 10, 2013

Early Indicators of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)



It is well established that early identification and intervention are critical determinants in the course and outcome of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).  Although there are no “absolute” clinical indicators of autism, some of the early “red flags” include: • Does not smile by the age of six months • Does not respond to his or her name • Does not cry • Does not babble or use gestures by 12 months and • Does not point to objects by 12 months. Children with autism typically experience delays in speech and communication skills. Not only will they often develop spoken language later, but they are less likely to develop non-verbal communication skills such as “joint attention,” pointing, or gesturing. 
Young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) typically exhibit core deficits in social communication skills, particularly in the areas of joint attention, shared affect, eye-contact, conventional and symbolic gestures, and related skills in functional and symbolic play. Children seek to share attention with others spontaneously during the first year of life. “Joint attention” is an early-developing social-communicative skill in which two people (usually a young child and an adult) use gestures and gaze to share attention with respect to interesting objects or events. Before infants have developed social cognition and language, they communicate and learn new information by following the gaze of others and by using their own eye contact and gestures to show or direct the attention of the people around them. These developments in the first two years of life are potentially important early indicators of ASD which can facilitate earlier diagnosis. Researchers have identified five core deficits (‘red flags’) evident in the early years, namely gaze shifting, gaze point following, rate of communicating, joint attention and gestures; these were the strongest predictors of symptoms of autism at three years.
Researchers in Melbourne Australia, working on a long-term study of children from eight months to seven years of age found that those with autism used fewer gestures to communicate than other kids. Parents of 1,911 children participating in the ‘Early Language in Victoria Study’ in Melbourne, Australia, completed questionnaires about their child’s development from infancy through to school age. At four years of age, a group of children identified with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were compared to other children from within the study; those with a developmental delay, language impairment, or typical development. Comparisons were made between the children’s early social communication skills (including eye-gaze, non-verbal communication, gesture, and speech skills) at 8 months, 1 year, and 2 years of age. By one year of age children with ASD used fewer early social communication skills than children with typical development. The only social communication skill that was found to be significantly different between children with ASD and all other children, however, was the use of gesture. Children with ASD used fewer gestures for communication than all other children at both 1 and 2 years of age.
Speech pathologist Carly Veness, who led the research, said there was a pattern of low gesture use among autistic children between the ages of eight months and two years. "We found that there was a decreased use of gestures like pointing, showing and giving,” she commented. The researchers noted that gestural deficits almost doubled the risk for ASD, pointing to the importance of targeting gesture deficits in infant early intervention approaches. They conclude that their results “… highlight the possibility of detecting risk signs for ASD as young as 12 months of age in a community sample, thus allowing for earlier recognition of the disorder.”
Veness, C., Prior, M., Bavin, E., Eadie, P., Cini, E., & Reilly, S. (2012). Early indicators of autism spectrum disorders at 12 and 24 months of age: A prospective, longitudinal comparative study. Autism, 16, 163-177.
Lee A. Wilkinson, PhD is the author of the award-winning book, A Best Practice Guide to Assessment and Intervention for Autism and Asperger Syndrome in Schools, published by Jessica Kingsley Publishers. He is also editor of a recent volume in the APA School Psychology Book Series, Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents: Evidence-Based Assessment and Intervention in Schools and author of the new book, Overcoming Anxiety and Depression on the Autism Spectrum: A Self-Help Guide Using CBT.


Sunday, January 6, 2013

Psychologist's Book Selected for Autism Course


Dr. Lee A. Wilkinson's award-winning book, Autism and Asperger Syndrome in Schools: A Best Practice Guide to Assessment and Intervention, was recently selected for a continuing education course by Professional Development Resources (PDR), a leading national provider of accredited online continuing education. The course, Autism & Asperger Syndrome in Schools, is offered for 6 hours of continuing education credit (CE). Dr. Wilkinson’s authoritative, yet accessible text provides step-by-step guidance for screening, assessing, and educating children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Grounded in the latest research, special features include illustrative case examples, FAQs, quick reference boxes, glossary, and an index to 50 evidence-based best practice recommendations. According to the course abstract, the book fills a critical void in the autism literature and is an essential resource for practitioners in psychology, general and special education, speech-language pathology, occupational therapy, counseling, social work, and for graduate and pre-service students. Parents, advocates, administrators, and attorneys will also find the content informative and helpful. Highly readable and comprehensive, this text sets the standard for those who want to further their understanding of the identification and treatment of school-age children with ASD.
Autism Spectrum Quarterly calls the book “a landmark contribution destined to become a classic in the field of autism spectrum disorders” and comments, “Dr. Wilkinson has made an enormous contribution to the field by comprehensively and systematically illuminating not only what needs to be done, but also how to go about doing it. The book is exquisitely and meticulously organized, making it an easy-to-access reference guide as well as a comprehensive text book and training manual."
Ally4autism comments, “Dr. Wilkinson has created an outstanding blend of academic research and practical application in a text that is so clearly written it is a pleasure to read for professionals and parents alike. His book concisely illustrates best practices in screening, assessment, treatment and special education services. Through case examples of two children, he demonstrates how these best practices can be put into action. This book fills an important need that has existed for years. Dr. Wilkinson has created an indispensable resource that should definitely be in each school’s professional library.”
ParentCoachingforAutism.com states, “…this guide should be required reading for all direct service providers who work with children in the school setting. As the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders continues to expand, this book is a crucial addition to any school library. Lee Wilkinson’s book is the perfect guide for schools to follow in order to set the ball in motion to access the earliest intervention services possible. The author does a wonderful job presenting all of the data, facts, figures and statistics in a very structured layout that is straightforward, practical and convenient to access.”
A Best Practice Guide... was named the Winner in the Education/Academic category of the 2011 Next Generation Indie Book Awards and honored as an Award-Winning Finalist in the Education/Academic category of the "Best Books 2010 Awards” sponsored by USA Book News.
A Best Practice Guide to Assessment and Intervention for Autism and Asperger Syndrome in Schools is available from Jessica Kingsley Publishers, ISBN: 978-1-84905-811-7 and can be ordered directly from the publisher and all major booksellers, including Amazon.com. The book is available in both print and eBook formats.

Lee A. Wilkinson, PhD, CCBT, NCSP  is also editor of a recent volume in the APA School Psychology Book Series, Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents: Evidence-Based Assessment and Intervention in Schools and author of the new book, Overcoming Anxiety and Depression on the Autism Spectrum: A Self-Help Guide Using CBT.

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